Difference between 3D and 4D CFC material

When we say 3D, 4D, the D means the fiber directions. If there are 3 directions, we call it 3D, if there are 5 directions, we call it 5D.

There are different types of 3D C/C, and 4D C/C. we will give a detailed explanation in the following paragraph. Please note: C/C means carbon carbon composite, also named CFC, carbon fiber composite.

Classification of CFC preforms structure: https://www.cfccarbon.com/news/classification-of-carbon-carbon-composite-preforms-structures.html
When we say 3D CFC, we usually mean 3D orthogonal structure carbon fiber composite material; This structure is the mostly used structure for most of the applications. We can make it with different density so to satisfy the different needs for different customers and different applications. You can see the structure drawing of the 3D orthogonal CFC below:

3D xyz structure

3D orthogonal structure

There is another kind of 3D structure, hoop structure. Also called cylindrical weave CC construction, please see the detailed link: https://www.cfccarbon.com/news/carbon-fiber-reinforcement-and-architecture-woven -3d-fabrics-2.html
For the density of 3D orthogonal C/C, the general manufacturer can achieve a density of 1.7, and the highest density that can be produced by a general equipment is 1.85-1.90, using CVI+ resin immersion cycle densification.
If special equipment (isostatic pressure equipment) is used, the density of C/C can be more than 1.9, which is the density that can be achieved by the world’s highest technology so far. We have provided to some customer  C/C products with a density of 1.9 or higher, and some have even reached a density of 1.93-1.95. Customers continue to order and the product quality is quite stable, and the customers are very satisfied.
For C/C requirements, many customers have their own designs and uses. We will design, manufacture, improve, and make samples according to the different requirements of different customers.
We will continue to improve technology, reduce costs while improving product quality, meet customer needs, and serve target customers and potential customers.


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